I think they’re still in a very early stage of how you do this particularly around the learning and performance improvement. One of the research efforts we’re about to launch is, if you really took talent development, learning is your highest priority as a company and recognized that the most valuable learning is not in training programs; which are less and less effective, but in the day to day work that the workers do on the job. How would you redesign the workplace to accelerate learning, to accelerate talent development? And I think, we have not yet done the research, but our hypothesis is there are different kinds of environments for different kinds of tasks in learning. It’s a very different process if you’re trying to develop a new product and come up with new levels of performance in the product versus if you’re trying to develop tighter deeper relationships with customers and learning about their needs and trying to find ways to be more helpful to them. I suspect there will different ways for collaboration.
Another example of the differences is when most companies talk about collaboration today, it tends to be in the context of reasonably long term efforts. You put together a team for 6 to 12 months and they have to work together to accomplish a particular new innovation or a task, and that’s one form of collaboration. There’s another form which actually I think is as important if not more, which is what we call “exception handling” and it goes back to the example of problems that emerge on a day to day basis that are exceptions to the policies and procedures that the company has and they need to get resolved in a much shorter timeframe. You don’t have 6 to 12 months to resolve these exceptions; you have 12 to 24 hours. And in that timeframe you have to find other people, typically it’s not something that you can resolve on your own. You need to connect to other people. You need to get access to relevant data, relevant analytics tools and do that all in a very short period of time, so that’s a different type of collaboration, and learning, and performance improvement then the more long term efforts where you have time to build up a team and really come up with a different set of practices that can support that.